Craniofacial Research Group

Our group’s craniofacial research focuses on optimizing the use of telemedicine to evaluate pediatric neurosurgical and pediatric plastic surgery patients, with a particular focus on those with head shape deformities. We create and evaluate new computational tools for the diagnosis and evaluation of craniosynostosis disorders, as well as for the modeling of novel treatment algorithms. By leveraging automated image processing techniques, artificial intelligence algorithms, and mobile hardware, we create innovative low-cost systems for patients, families, pediatricians, and surgeons that aim to improve access to high-quality care.

Selected Publications

  1. Paro MR, Lambert W, Leclair NK, Stoltz P, Martin JE, Hersh DS, Bookland MJ. Telemedicine in Neurosurgery and Artificial Intelligence Applications. World Neurosurg. 2022 Jul;163:83-84. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.04.078
  2. Paro MR, Lambert WA, Leclair NK, Chakraborty AR, Angelo S, Pesante B, Stoltz P, Martin JE, Bookland MJ, Hersh DS. Family-acquired photographs for the evaluation of pediatric head shape via telemedicine: an analysis of photograph quality. Neurosurg Focus. 2022 Jun;52(6):E11. doi: 10.3171/2022.3.FOCUS2235.
  3. Paro MR, Lambert W, Leclair NK, Romano R, Stoltz P, Martin JE, Hersh DS, Bookland MJ. Machine Learning-Driven Clinical Image Analysis to Identify Craniosynostosis: A Pilot Study of Telemedicine and Clinic Patients. Neurosurgery. 2022 May 1;90(5):613-618. doi: 10.1227/neu. 0000000000001890
  4. Whittall I, Lambert WA, Moote DJ, Bookland MJ, Martin JE, Hughes CD, Hersh DS. Postnatal diagnosis of single-suture craniosynostosis with cranial ultrasound: a systematic review. Childs Nerv Syst. 2021 Oct 5. doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05301-w. Online ahead of print.
  5. Leclair NK, Lambert W, Knopf J, Stoltz P, Hersh DS, Martin JE, Bookland MJ. Rate of craniometric change following suture release in patients with metopic and sagittal craniosynostosis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2021 Oct 1;29(1):66-73. doi:10.3171/2021.7.PEDS21239
  6. Bookland MJ, Ahn ES, Stoltz P, Martin JE. Image processing and machine learning for telehealth craniosynostosis screening in newborns. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2021 Mar 19;27(5):581-588. doi: 10.3171/2020.9.PEDS20605
  • Trigonocephaly Photo
David Hersh, M.D., FAANS

David Hersh, M.D., FAANS

Markus Bookland, M.D., FAANS

Markus Bookland, M.D., FAANS


  • Nathan LeClair, Ph.D.
  • Sophie Angelo
  • Summer Xu
  • Mitch Paro